Understanding the Objective Standard


Use of force - Policy Considerations: Policy as Conceptual Guidance: • Provides overarching principles, values, and objectives to guide decision-making. • Focuses on setting a framework and direction for actions and behaviors. • Emphasizes the organization's mission, vision, and desired outcomes. • Offers flexibility for interpretation and adaptati...

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General Perception Issues: Video Examination

Analysis of Force Through Video Review and Examination  General Perception Issues; Analysis of Force Through Video Review and Examination The phenomenon where an officer involved in a critical incident may perceive a weapon where there is none, or misinterpret an object as a weapon, can be understood through a complex interplay of psychologica...

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Video Distortions, Visual Principles, Force Analysis

Looming Effects Related to Visual Principles and the Effects on Video Review and Examination  Looming Effects Related to Visual Principles and the Effects on Video Review and Examination: When combined with the distortive effects of a fish-eye lens, the visual principle of looming creates a unique set of challenges and considerations for video...

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Developing Expertise - First Steps

Click on the image above to see the conversation; Danny and Jamie have a brief discussion about where to begin in the development of foundational expertise in police use-of-force cases. Join us for our Enhanced Force Investigations Course or our Force Analysis; Video Review and Examination Course. Click on a class button below for more info 

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Attention, Experience, & Recall in Critical Incidents

Part Two of the Two Part Series: The Totality of Facts and Circumstances from the Officers Perspective;  Investigation and Evaluation of Use-of-Force - considering attentional resources and the associated memory issues from an investigative perspective Investigating and evaluating Use-of-Force, considering attentional resources and the associa...

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Hindsight Review and Analysis; and Memory Considerations

Part One of a Two Part  Series -  Understanding the nature of perceptual distortions and their potential impact on the appearance of an officer's real-time judgment is crucial.  (https://rumble.com/v1eajya-body-cam-officer-involved-deadly-shooting-nash-fiske.-nov-4.-wisconsin.html) This article is based on the above-linked video and ...

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Comparison: Body-Worn Camera v. The Human Eye

Comparing the Human Eye to Body Worn Camera Video: Have you ever done a side by side comparison of the human eye versus the distortion caused by wide angle and fish eye lenses?  We just did.  We do this stuff ever day and we're shocked. CIR's Jamie Borden and American Patrolman's Danny King took a look at the difference between the two. @...

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A look at “Shared Cognition” as a concept and theory in Law Enforcement

A look at "Shared Cognition" as a concept and theory in Law Enforcement In a critical incident involving law enforcement, shared cognition refers to the collective mental processes and communication among officers involved in the incident. While shared cognition can enhance decision-making and coordination, it also has limitations that officers mus...

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Critique v. Analysis

What can we get out of a surface review related to training points when we dont know all of the information

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Enhanced Force Investigations Course

Checkout the Enhanced Force Investigations Course HERE

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From Video Analysis to Examination

Finding the Perfect Blend of Technicality and Specialized Knowledge For Your Agency ~ Shifting the focus from "what are you looking at?" to "what are you looking for?" ~ The Power of Video Review/Examination in Today's Digital Age Video review has become an indispensable tool in law enforcement, enabling professionals to analyze, dissect, and evalu...

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OODA Loop – A hindsight analytical tool


As an experienced investigator, a national investigations trainer and a court certified expert witness I have been directly involved in or analyzed and evaluated scores of use-of-force investigations. Not surprisingly, a dominant mantra I consistently notice investigators repeating is, "What happened?" That's a critical question, of course, but if ...

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Cops are NOT Super-Humans. Understanding the Experts Who Explain That


Cops are super-humans. They can override the inherent limitations of their minds and bodies because they've been trained to do so. They can move quicker, think faster and see, hear and remember more than any other category of human. In fact, it wouldn't be right to measure their behavior and performance against the standards "normal" humans would b...

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Leadership Perspective on Force Analysis

Articles generate thought, thoughts provoke discussions, discussions catalyze improvement. This commentary highlights some points from the article, "Lessons on Leadership ~ Making the worst ship in the Navy the best ship" (Abrashoff, 2022) linked below. Focus of this article After reading Michael Abrashoff's "Turning the worst ship in the Navy into...

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Video Review and Training Development

How do we best extrapolate training from the video evidence of a critical incident?  Simply stated, when we review a video and we do not have all of the facts and data regarding why the behavior we see is unfolding, we "critique" the actions of those players in the video.  As trainers, we have to establish "RCA"  after a full analysi...

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Thinking Point; Consistency within Complexity


Consistency in a critical incident is often lost in the unpredictable actions of others and the infinite number of possible responses by the officer.   Gathering factual data is the focus; the interview process must be conducted with deep communication skills, i.e., thoughtful open-ended questions, and deep open-minded listening.The interview ...

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Use of Force; Policy Matters

Use of Force; Policy Matters (pre and post-incident) : As a Use of Force instructor for the past several years, as well as an expert in human factors and an experienced video analyst, I have seen first-hand the critical differences between the intended purpose of a policy and how that policy is actually applied in the aftermath of a critical incide...

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Human Factors Check List

Critical Incident Review  FISCI_CHECKLIST.pdf - Google Drive The draft of the Human Factors Check list is a living document.  Please leave thoughts and ideas you have regarding the use of the  Check-List for others to gain  from all of the experience and application regarding the use of the tool. https://drive.google.com/file/d/...

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The CIR Team has logged thousands of hours of continued and focused education in the field of Human Behavioral Sciences as it relates to law enforcement and has also logged thousands of hours of documented instruction time with multiple law enforcement entities as instructors, lecturers and authors.